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Research Report-Maha 1991/92

 

1.    Adaptability testing trial Grape

2. Variety Evaluation of Exotic Mango

3. Evaluation of Mango - Malwane selection

4. Rootstock Effects on Growth, Productivity and Quality of Mango

5. Germplasm Evaluation - Papaya

6. Adaptability testing trial - Pineapple

7. Sweet Orange Observation Trial

8. Performance of Wood-apple grafted Sweet Orange

9. Asparagus Observation Trial

10. Variety evaluation - Bush Beans

11. Variety evaluation - Carrot

12. Variety evaluation - Tomato

 

 

1. Grape

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Adaptability testing trial Grape

3. Objective(s)

To study the performance of selected grape varieties under the conditions of Mahawali System B and


To identify the promising grape varieties for the region.

4. Crop Variety

Grape

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Season

Maha 91/92

7. Treatments

Varieties

1. Cardinal
2. Ribier
3. Thompson Seedless
4. Black Muscat
5. Flame Seedless
6. Gordo
7. Italia
8. Nyora
9. Waltham
10.Purple Cornichon

11.Red Emperor

8. Design

Observational plots

9. Spacing

2.5 m x 4 m

10.Date of Planting

June 6, 1990

11.Cultural Practices

Irrigation: Vines were basin irrigated nine times during this season.

 

Mulching: Vines were mulched with Illuk loppings in third week of February

 

Pest and Disease Control: Downy mildew disease was prevalent throughout the season. Vines were sprayed 11 times to control this disease. Trimiltox, Mancozeb and Captan were used and same chemical was not repeatedly applied more than two times. Leaf eating caterpillars (Spodoptera spp. and Hornworms) were observed in end of October and early November. Application of pesticide `Monocrotophos' effectively controlled these insects. Again the same insecticide was applied in late February to control Spodopteran leaf eating caterpillars.

12.Results

 

Growth of the vines:

 

In January 1992, One and a half years after the establishment of the vines it was noted that the vines are in various growth stages. Some of the vines were dead (DEAD PLANT) while some are very weakly growing that the trunk has not reached to the pandole height (SMALL PLANT). Some plants have reached the level of the pandole height but have a very thin and immature trunk (THIN TRUNK). Others are well grown and have a mature trunk (MATURE TRUNK) and still some plants have very well grown, thick, well mature trunks (WELL GROWN). Table 1. lists the number of plants under these growth stages for each variety. Vigor Index values were assigned for these growth stages of plants as shown in Table 1.

 

Table 1. Number of plants of each variety under different growth stages.

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VARIETY DEAD SMALL THIN MATURE WELL

PLANT PLANT TRUNK TRUNK GROWN

(0)* (1) (2) (3) (4)

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WALTHAM  11 0 0 1 0

NYORA 4 0 0 3 5

CARDINAL 3 2 1 2 4

FLAME SEEDLESS 2 0 4 5 1

SULTANA 2 1 2 6 1

RED EMPEROR 9 2 1 0 0

RIBIER 0 6 0 3 3

GORDO 8 4 0 0 0

BLACK MUSCAT 1 6 3 2 0

ITALIA 0 4 6 2 0

PURPLE CORNICHON    4 5 1 2 0

 

TOTAL 44 30 18 26 14

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* Vigor index assigned to each growth stage

 

Based on data gathered for survival and vigor of the vines it is possible to divide these varieties to three groups as shown in Table 2. Average Vigor Index (AVI) was calculated as follows

 

AVI = Σ(Ni.Vi)/L


Where Ni = Number of plants in ith growth stage
Vi = Vigor index for ith growth stage
L = Number of living plants

 

Table 2. Survival and Average Vigor Index of Grape Varieties.

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VARIETY SURVIVAL NUMBER OF VIGOR AVI

GROUP LIVING PLANTS GROUP

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WALTHAM LOW 1 HIGH 3.0

RED EMPEROR LOW 3 V.LOW 1.3
GORDO LOW 4 V.LOW 1.3

 

ITALIA V.HIGH 12 LOW 1.8

PURPLE CORNICHON HIGH 8 LOW 1.6

BLACK MUSCAT V.HIGH 11 LOW 1.6

 

NYORA HIGH 8 V.HIGH 3.6

CARDINAL HIGH 9 HIGH 2.9

FLAME SEEDLESS V.HIGH 10 HIGH 2.7

SULTANA V.HIGH 10 HIGH 2.7

RIBIER V.HIGH 12 HIGH 2.4

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These results show that varieties Waltham, Red Emperor and Gordo have a very poor survival rate. Though varieties Italia, Purple Cornichon and Black Muscat have a fairly high survival rate, vines are not vigorous. Varieties Nyora, Cardinal, Flame Seedless, Sultana and Ribier showed good survival and grow vigorously.

 

Pruning: Vines were pruned to induce flowering on the second week of January. Before pruning fertilizers were applied at the rate of 240g Urea, 240g CSP and 600g MOP per vine. However, only a few varieties responded to pruning with flowering as shown in Table 3. Fruits of variety Waltham were sweet, green in color and oval in shape. Variety Nyora had purplish oval fruits and were sour in taste. Black Muscat fruits were round and purplish black in color with a sweet taste. Fruit bunches of all varieties were very compact. Fruit development and ripening within bunch was also not uniform.

 

The observations that only a few varieties flowered in response to pruning and that all the vines in responding varieties did not flower suggests that these grape varieties are specific with regard to their requirements in pruning and training method and time of pruning for successful fruiting.

 

Most of the vines had long trunks and canes without a good framework for the production of fruiting canes. Therefore, after pruning many vegetative shoots sprouted from these vines. Thus a number of vines were back pruned to induce forming a proper framework having fruiting arms in order to produce fruiting canes. Initially one vigorous vine was selected in each variety for this purpose on trial basis. These were trained to form 2-5 arms for the production of fruiting canes.

 

Table 3. Flowering response of grape varieties to pruning.

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Variety Number of Number of Number of

Vines vines Fruit

Pruned Flowered Clusters

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WALTHAM 1 1 5

NYORA 8 3 5

BLACK MUSCAT 5 3 5

RIBIER 6 1 1

CARDINAL 7 0 0

FLAME SEEDLESS         10 0 0

SULTANA 9 0 0

RED EMPEROR 1 0 0

GORDO 0 0 0

ITALIA 8 0 0

PURPLE CORNICHON 3 0 0
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13.Summary

 

Grape varieties differ in relation to their growth and vigor of vines. Varieties Nyora, Cardinal, Flame Seedless, Sultana, and Ribier showed good growth and vigor. In response to pruning in January 1992, a few plants of varieties Waltham, Nyora, Black Muscat and Ribier flowered.

 

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2. Mango Variety Evaluation

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Variety Evaluation of Exotic Mango

3. Objective(s)

To identify suitable mango varieties for the region

4. Crop Variety

Mango

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Season

Maha 91/92

7. Treatments

1. Alphonso

2. Carabao
3. Carrie
4. Gouveia
5. Kent
6. Karuthakolomban
7. Okrong
8. Otts
9. Saigon
10.Spring fells
11.Van dyke
12.Willard

8. Design

RCBD with sub sampling

9. Number of Replicates

Three replicates with two plants per replicate

10.Plot Size

10 m x 20 m

11.Spacing

10 m x 10 m

12.Date of Planting

February 21, 1991

13.Cultural Practices

Plants were irrigated fortnightly during the drought period. In February, 225 g of the fertilizer mixture 16-20-12 was applied. Plants were mulched in February.

14.Remarks

Data are being collected on growth of plants, pests and diseases etc.

 

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3. Evaluation of Mango - Malwane selection

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Evaluation of Mango - Malwane selection

3. Objective(s)

To study the adaptability of Malwane selection mango under local conditions

4. Crop Variety

Mango

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Season

Maha 91/92

7. Treatments

Seven accessions of Malwane mango

8. Design

Observational plot

9. Date of Planting

January 15, 1988

10.Spacing

8 m x 8 m

11.Remarks

 

The trees have an upright growth habit and the canopy is very loose and non-spreading. Trees did not come into bearing even four years after planting. However, only two trees flowered in March 1992.

 

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4. Mango Rootstock

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Rootstock Effects on Growth, Productivity and Quality of Mango

3. Objective(s)

To identify better rootstocks for quality mango production

4. Crop Variety

Mango

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Season

Maha 91/92

7. Treatments

Rootstock Varieties

Karuthakolomban
Velleikolomban
Willard
Wal-amba
Kohu-amba

Scion Cultivars
Karuthakolomban
Velleikolomban

8. Design

RCBD

9. Number of Replicates

4

10.Spacing

10 m x 10 m

11.Remarks

Rootstock seedlings are grown in the nursery to produce rootstock materials for this trial

 

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5. Germplasm Evaluation - Papaya

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Germplasm Evaluation - Papaya

3. Objective(s)

To identify suitable papaya varieties for the region

4. Crop Variety

Papaya

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Season

Yala 1991

7. Treatments

Varieties

1. Waimanalo x 77 - Casuga
2. Tomasu Line 8
3. Solopapaya - Sun Rise
4. Waimanalo x 77
5. Solopapaya - Waimanalo Low
6. Kapoha Solo - Open pollinated
7. Local variety (check)

8. Remarks

 

This trial was planted in February 1991. All the foreign varieties were highly susceptible to Pithium root rot and a large number of plants were dead about two months after planting. Those vacancies were re-planted using seedlings treated with Captan but with little success. Therefore, this trial was abandoned.

 

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6. Adaptability testing trial - Pineapple

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Adaptability testing trial - Pineapple

3. Objective(s)

To study the performance of pineapple under the prevailing climatic conditions in the region

4. Crop Variety

Pineapple

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Season

Maha 91/92

7. Treatments

Ratoon suckers of variety Mauritius

8. Design

Observational plot

9. Spacing

1.0 x 0.60 x 0.45

10.Date of Planting

October 18, 1991

11.Cultural Practices

When the ratoons were fully established in the field, rows were inter-cultivated in first week of December and a pre-emergent herbicide 'Goal' was applied at the rate of 25 ml/l and mulched with Illuk loppings. First fertilizer application, 30 g/plant of 11-7-31 mixture was given in December 1991 and again the second application was made in April, 1992 always after a rain. The crop is performing well without any irrigation.

 

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7. Sweet Orange Observation Trial

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Sweet Orange Observation Trial

3. Objective(s)

To assess the feasibility of growing sweet orange in this region and

to identify promising rootstocks for potential sweet orange varieties

4. Crop Variety

Sweet Orange

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Treatments

 

Three sweet orange varieties (VALENCIA, HAMIL & PINEAPPLE ORANGE) are evaluated on four rootstock species (ROUGH LEMON, VOLKAMARINA, CITROMELLA & RANGPUR LIME). Experiment is conducted on observational basis having four plants from each stock-scion combination.

 

7. Date of Planting

October 24, 1991

8. Spacing

6m x 4m

9. Remarks

 

Data are collected on growth of scion and rootstock, sucker production of rootstocks, pest and diseases etc..

 

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8. Performance of Wood-apple grafted Sweet Orange

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

 

Performance of Wood-apple grafted Sweet Orange

3. Objective(s)

 

To study the performance of wood apple grafted sweet orange under the conditions of Mahawali system B

4. Crop Variety

Sweet Orange

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Season

Maha 91/92

7. Treatments

 

Sweet orange grafted on wood-apple stock (305 Plants)

8. Design

Observational plot

9. Spacing

3 m x 3 m

10.Date of Planting

Jan 10,1988

11.Results

 

Yield data for the fruits harvested in September 1991 were given in 1991 Yala report.


Four years after planting this trial the trees show different growth patterns. Tree decline is a common feature and most of the trees are weak, yet there are very robust plants too. Trees also have different fruit bearing habits. Data presented in tables 1 & 2 show the distribution of plants according to the vigor of plants and their fruiting habits.


Table 1. Vigor of four-year-old sweet orange grafted on wood apple stock.

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VIGOR NUMBER OF PLANTS  % OF PLANTS

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DEAD  88 29

DYING  27  9

WEAK 124                            41

NORMAL  61 20

VERY VIGOROUS 5                             1

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Table 2. Fruiting habit of four-year-old sweet orange grafted on wood apple stock.

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FRUITING HABIT NUMBER OF PLANTS % OF PLANTS

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NO FRUITS 73 24

VERY FEW 91 30

NORMAL 34 11

HEAVY 19                       6

DEAD PLANTS 88 29

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At the end of the fourth year 29% of the trees were dead while another 50% of the trees shows vigorous growth. Fruit bearing habits also vary appreciably among trees. However, fruit bearing habit of these trees do not relate to the vigor of the plants. Heavy fruit set was also observed among weak trees.

 

Data collection on vigor and fruit set will be continued to study whether heavy fruit set causes the rapid decline of these trees. Fruit thinning is an important horticultural management tool in order to maintain tree vigor for sustained production of optimal yields. Since heavy bearing is a common characteristic of wood-apple grafted sweet orange and that fruit thinning is not practiced as a tree management technique, this aspect has to be studied further.

 

 

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9. Asparagus Observation Trial

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Asparagus Observation Trial

3. Objective(s)

To determine the feasibility of growing asparagus in the region.

4. Crop Variety

UC 157

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Season

Maha 91/92

7. Treatments

Two spacing


1.5 m x 0.7 m
1.0 m x 0.7 m

8. Plot Size

15 m x 25 m (375 m2)

9. Date of Planting

November 5, 1990

10.Cultural Practices

 

Plants were furrow irrigated as and when necessary. Weed control was done manually. Fertilizers were applied in January at 30g of urea, 20g of CSP and 10g of MOP per plant.

11.Remarks

An attempt was made to start harvesting in January 1992. Spears were cut only once and harvesting was stopped since plants were infected with root rot fungus and the development of spears was very poor.

 

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10. Variety evaluation - Bush Beans

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Variety evaluation - Bush Beans

3. Objective(s)

To study the adaptability of beans to the region and to identify promising heat tolerant varieties.

4. Crop

Beans

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila.

6. Design

RCBD with 4 replicates

7. Spacing

Bush type - 50cm x 10cm
Pole type - 60cm x 45cm

8. Date of Planting

January 04, 1992

9. Plot Size

Bush type - 2.0 x 4.0 M
Pole type - 1.8 x 4.5 M

10. Results

 

Two pole bean varieties and four bush bean varieties were tested in Maha 1991/92. Table 1 shows the pod Yield and percentage of plants that were remaining in the plots at first and last picks. Since the yields were very low the data were not statistically analyzed and only the mean values are presented in the Table 1.


Table 1. Pod yield and percentage of plant loss due to collar-rot at first and last picks.

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VARIETY TYPE YIELD PERCENT LOSS OF PLANTS IN

(Mt/ha) FIRST PICK LAST PICK

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TOP CROP BUSH 3.8 66.4 70.7

NARBONNE BUSH 1.6 71.2 79.2

FLORENCE BUSH 3.3 64.2 75.1

XERO BUSH 1.3 82.5 84.0

KWG POLE 1.1 32.0 65.8

CUNERA POLE --- --- ---

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The very low yields were due to collar rot disease. This disease destroyed 40 - 85% of the plants. Chemical control methods were ineffective in checking the progress of diseases that was continuous from seedling stage to final harvesting time. Variety Cunera did not germinate at all even with second seeding.

 

 

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11. Variety evaluation - Carrot

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Variety evaluation - Carrot

3. Objective(s)

To identify some promising carrot varieties for the region

4. Crop

Carrot

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Season

Maha 91/92

7. Treatments

 

Cape Market
CT - 225 - Kuroda
CT - 226 - No 12-ACA-03
CT - 228 - Berlioum Bercoro
CT - 229 - Flakkee

8. Design

RCBD

9. Number of Replicates

4

10.Plot Size

1.2 x 4 M

11.Spacing

30 x 05 cm

12.Date of Planting

Dec 11, 1991

13.Remarks

A few days after planting seeds in the field heavy rains followed for a number of days. These rains washed off the seeds and therefore this trial had to be abandoned.

 

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12. Variety evaluation - Tomato

 

1. Name of Researcher

K.H.S Peiris

I.D Gunawardane

2. Title of Experiment

Variety evaluation - Tomato

3. Objective(s)

To identify promising heat tolerant tomato varieties for the Maha season in Mahawali System B

4. Crop

Tomato

5. Location

RARC, Aralaganwila

6. Season

Maha 91/92

7. Treatments

Six tomato varieties

 

1. KWR 4. T- 146
2. Caribo 5. T- 245
3. Vihara I 6. Vihara II

8. Design

RCBD

9. Number of Replicates

4

10.Plot Size

3.5 x 2.4 M

11.Harvested area

Whole plot

12.Spacing

80 x 50 cm

13.Date of sowing

Nov. 08, 1991

14.Date of Planting

Dec. 10, 1991

15.Date of harvesting

First; February 11, 1992
Last; March 04, 1992

16.Cultural Practices

Cultural practices described in the Vegetable Variety Testing Guidelines were followed.

 

17.Results

 

Six tomato varieties were tested in Maha 1991/92 season. Out of these varieties, total yield of variety T-146 out yielded all other varieties including two hybrid varieties Vihara I and Vihara II (Table 1). However, marketable yields of varieties T-146, Vihara I and Vihara II were not significantly different.

 


Table 1. Total Yield(TFW), Marketable Yield(MFW), Average Fruit Weight(AFW) and Number of Fruits Per Plot(TNF) of six tomato varieties

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VARIETY TFW MFW AFW TNF

(t/ha) (t/ha) (g) (PLOT)

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KWR                      6.6 bc* 6.2 ab 21.6 b 267 a

T-146 16.7 a 14.4 a      34.9 a 427 a

CARAIBO                  3.5 c 3.2 b 37.2 a  72 b

VIHARA I 13.7 ab 13.2 a  23.0 b 508 a

VIHARA II 14.1 ab 13.5 a  22.6 b 472 a

T-245                    9.1 abc 8.5 ab 28.8 ab 256 a

 

CV (%) 51.2 53.2         20.6   12.3

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* Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different 
at α = 0.05 according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

 

High yields of T-146 were both due to its higher fruit set and larger fruit size compared to other varieties. Though Vihara I and Vihara II had higher fruit set smaller fruit size of these two varieties lowered their yield levels. These results showed that varieties KWR, T-245 and Caraibo are not suitable for this area since they have a little fruit set. Varieties T-146, Vihara I and Vihara II showed promising results as heat tolerant varieties. Use of proper cultural management techniques to increase fruit size of these varieties will further improve the yield potential of these varieties.

 

18.Summary

 

Three tomato varieties T-146, Vihara I and Vihara II performed well compared to KWR, T-245, and Caraibo as heat tolerant varieties for the Maha season. It seems that employment of proper cultural techniques to increase the fruit size will remarkably increase the yield levels of these varieties.

 

 

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